preposition writing Pre শব্দের অর্থ পূর্বে এবং Position শব্দের অর্থ অবস্থান। যে Word Noun বা Pronoun-এর পূর্বে বসে সেই Noun বা Pronoun-এর সঙ্গে বাক্যের অন্যান্য Word-এর সঙ্গে সম্পর্ক স্থাপন করে তাকে Preposition বলে।
যেমন : There is a cow in the field. এখানে in Preposition এবং তা Cow এবং field-এর মধ্যে সম্পর্ক স্থাপন করেছে।
গঠন ও কার্যকারিতা ভেদে Preposition-এর শ্রেণি বিন্যাস
1. Simple Preposition : এ কটি Word দ্বারা গঠিত Prepositionই হলো Simple Preposition যেমন : In, On, by, at, with, ইত্যাদি।
2. Double Preposition: দুটি Simple Preposition যুক্ত হয়ে Double Preposition-এর মতো ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন : Within (with+in), into (in+to)
3. Compound Preposition : Noun, adjective বা adverb-এর পূর্বে Simple Preposition যুক্ত হয়ে যে Preposition গঠিত হয় তাকে Compound Preposition বলে। এখানে On এর স্থানে a এবং by এর স্থানে b বা be হয়। যেমন : about (on+by+out), below (by+low)
4. Phrase Preposition : দুই বা ততোধিক Preposition (বাWord) একত্রে Phrase Preposition গঠন করে। যেমন : In front of, In order to , In lieu of ইত্যাদি।
5. Participle Preposition : Participle of verb (Present or past) কখনো কখনো Preposition-এর মতো ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন : I saw the people walking past him.
6. Disguised Preposition : অনেক ক্ষেত্রে লক্ষ্য করা যায় on, at, of, Preposition-এর পরিবর্তে a বা o ব্যবহৃত হয়। এরূপ a বা o কে Disguised Preposition বলে।
7. Special Preposition : Than ও but মূলত Conjunction হলেও কখনো আবার Preposition রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়। তখন তাদের Special Preposition বলে। যেমন : Iam older than her.
8. Verbal Preposition : এই জাতীয় Preposition Verb-এর পূর্বে যুক্ত হয়ে নতুন Verb গঠন করে। যেমন : Overlook (Over+look), Withdraw (with+draw).
At এর ব্যবহার
১।অবস্থান বুঝাইতে নাম উল্লেখিত ছোট স্থানের আগে যেমনঃ গ্রাম, এলাকা, মহল্লা ও ছোট শহরের আগে at বসে।যেমনঃ at Baratengra, at Chashara
২। সময় বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ I go to bed at 10 o’ clock.
৩।অবস্থা বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ The country is at war now.
৪।হার / গতি বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ Iffat was driving the car at 100 kilometers per hour.
৫।দায়িত্ব বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ You must repair it at your own cost.
৬।দূরত্ব বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ Barguna is at 50 kilometers from here.
৭।বয়স বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ He lost his father at 10.
৮।দিক বুঝাইতে at বসে। যেমনঃ He pointed the gun at him.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর at বসে।
arrive, astonished, annoyed, envy, fire, knock, shame, smile, laugh, surprised, louch, wonder, alarm, jeer.
To এর ব্যবহার
১।কোন স্থানে আসা এবং যাওয়া বুঝালে ঐ স্থানের আগে to বসে।যেমনঃ i. He goes to school everyday. ii. He came to Bangladesh in 1971.
বিঃদ্রঃ আসা এবং যাওয়া বুঝালেও home, abroad, here, there এর আগে to বসে না।
ব্যতিক্রমঃ From here to there.
২।বাক্যে V+তে / র = to+V1. যেমনঃ i. He told me to read a book. ii.I have nothing to give you.
৩।ব্যক্তির কাছে বুঝালে তার আগে to বসে।যেমনঃ He came to me.
৪।অনুসারে বুঝাতে to বসে।যেমনঃ The food is to me test.
৫।সীমানার বাইরে বুঝাতে to বসে।যেমনঃ Japan is to the east of our country.
৬।পর্যন্ত বুঝাতে to বসে।যেমনঃ They fought to the last.
৭।পরিমান / হার বুঝাতে to বসে।যেমনঃ There are 2.54 c.m. to an inch.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর to বসে।
incline, harmful, beneficial, injurious, according, accustomed, add, admit, adjacent, affectionate, attend, bar, cling, belong, close, commit, common, known, confined, congenial, contrary, dedicate, devote, expose, exceptional, yeld, grateful, hostile, indebted, introduced, irrelevant, liable, loyal,object, prefer, preferable, senior,junior, superior,talk, inferior, prone, refer, reply, speak, lead, eager,willing.
In এর ব্যবহার
১।কোন বিষয় বা ভাষায় বুঝালে তার আগে in বসে। যেমনঃ in English, in Accounting, in Arabic.
২।বড় স্থান বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ We live in Dhaka.
৩।সময়ের ক্ষেত্রে ( মাস / বছর / ঋতুর নাম ) বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ We get freedom in December in 1971.
৪।ক্ষেত্র বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ I am unable to help you in this regard.
৫।অবস্থা বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ He is in a good health.
৬।বিবেচনা বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ You have to do it in your own interest.
৭।পেশার ক্ষেত্র বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ He has been in politics.
৮।মাধ্যম বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ You have to pay the bill in cash.
৯।অনুপাতের ক্ষেত্র বুঝাতে in বসে। যেমনঃ In England, one in three enters higher education.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর in বসে।
expert, excel, indulge, succeed, believe, assist, interested, consist (নিহিত অর্থে), lie, encourage, grory, persist, rich, trade.
For এর ব্যবহার
১।সময়ের আগে ধরে / যাবৎ / ব্যাপিয়া বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃ It has been raining for two hours.
২।জন্য বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃ What can I do for you?
৩।সাহায্য অর্থে বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃ Would you please do it for me?
৪।কারন বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃ Rajshahi is famous for its mangoes.
৫।সমর্থন বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃ Are you for the proposal?
৬।মূল্য বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃI bought this pen for 20 taka.
৭।বিনিময় বুঝাইতে for বসে। যেমনঃ You will get a coupon for every 100 taka you pay.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর for বসে।
compensate, ask, affection, appetite, bound, care, desire, long, fit, search, seek, thirst, zeal, zest.
From এর ব্যবহার
১। কারো নিকট হইতে অথবা কোন স্থান হইতে বুঝাইলে from বসে। যেমনঃ
আমার নিকট হইতে = from me.
ঢাকা থেকে = From Dhaka.
i. The man come from abroad. ii. Don’t get down from a running bus.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর from বসে।
refrain, resist, obstrain, prohibited, protect, prevent, preserve, aloof, deferent, suffer.
Of এর ব্যবহার
১।সম্পর্ক বুঝাতে of বসে। যেমনঃ I know nothing of it.
২।অধিকার / মালিকানা বুঝাতে of বসে। যেমনঃ It is the house of Mr. Khan.
৩।উৎপন্ন / উদ্ভুত অর্থ বুঝাতে of বসে। যেমনঃ He comes of a respectable family.
৪।উপকরণ বুঝাতে of বসে। যেমনঃ The house is made of stone.
৫।কারন বুঝাতে of বসে। যেমনঃ The young boy of cholera.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর of বসে।
fond, sure, conscious, aware, inform, proud, boast, capable, deprieve, devoid, accused, charged, advantage, dull, afraid, approve, bereft, cause, consist(গঠিত অর্থে), cure, in the habit, in favour, envious, fear, full, ignorant, get rid, jealous, shortage.
On এর ব্যবহার
১।নদীর তীরে বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ Dhaka is on the Buriganga.
২।কোন কিছুর উপরে সংলগ্ন বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ The book is on the table.
৩।Floor এর সংখ্যা বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ The office is on the 4th floor.
৪।সীমানার উপর বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ The Buriganga is on the south of Dhaka.
৫।বার / তারিখের পূর্বে এবং দিবসের আগে বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ He will come back on Sunday on the 5th May.
৬।সম্বন্ধে বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ He wrote an essay on the cow.
৭।নির্ভরতা বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ We live on rice.
৮।অনুসারে বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ He has taken leave on medical advice.
৯।সময়ের বর্ণনা বুঝাতে on বসে। যেমনঃ The river looks beautiful on a moonlit night.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর on বসে।
congratulate, comment, pride, rely, bestowed, insist, determined, depend, impose, reflect, take pity.
By এর ব্যবহার
১।কোন উপায় বা পদ্বতির মাধ্যমে বুঝাইতে তার আগে by বসে। যেমনঃ By hard labour.
২।পাশে বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ He sat by me.
৩। মাধ্যম বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ Nipu achieved success by determination.
৪।পথ অর্থে বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ I shall travel by road.
৫।শপথ নেয়া বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ I swear by almighty Allah.
৬।Passive Form-এ by বসে। যেমনঃ The work was done by me.
৭পরিমাপ বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ The room is 12 feet by 10 feet.
৮সময়(সুনির্দিষ্ট) বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ He will come back by 5 pm.
৯।হার বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ They are improving day by day.
১০।কারো সম্পর্কে জানতে অর্থ বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ He is an American by birth.
১১।যানবাহনে ভ্রমণ বুঝাতে by বসে। যেমনঃ We went to Khulna by bus.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর by বসে।
accompanied, affected, judge.
With এর ব্যবহার
১।সাথে বুঝাতে with বসে। যেমনঃ He came with me.
২।দ্বারা / দিয়া বুঝাতে with বসে। যেমনঃ I killed the snake with a stick,
৩।কারন with বসে। যেমনঃ The shadow lengthened with the approach of the sun.
নিম্নের শব্দ গুলোর পর with বসে।
burden, cope, keep, up, keep pace, acquitted, angry, annoy, beset, blessed, covered, compare(ব্যক্তির সাথে হলে with কিন্তু জিনিসের সাথে হলে to), content, familiar, invest, popular, reward.
১: নির্দিষ্ট স্থান থেকে দূরে কিংবা সময়ের ব্যবধান বোঝাতে off ব্যবহূত হয়। যেমন: (a) I called him but he ran off. (b) Summer is not far off now.
২: কোনো কিছু দূরীভূত হয়েছে বোঝাতে off ব্যবহূত হয়। যেমন: (a) Take your shoes off. (b) He has had his beard shaved off.
৩: বন্ধ কিংবা বাতিল বোঝাতে off ব্যবহূত হয়। যেমন: The ceremony is off.
The switch of the fan has been made off.
৪: কর্ম থেকে দূরে বা ছুটি বোঝাতে off ব্যবহূত হয়। যেমন: (a) She is off today. (b) I have got three days off next week.
Into এর ব্যবহার
১।গতিশীলতা বুঝাতে into বসে। যেমনঃ The teacher entered into the class room.
২।অবস্থার পরিবর্তন বুঝাতে into বসে। যেমনঃ Water is changed into snow.
৩।সংঘর্ষ বুঝাতে into বসে। যেমনঃ The truck crashed into a parked car.
৪।সংখ্যায় ভাগ হওয়া বুঝাতে into বসে। যেমনঃ They were divided into three groups.
৫।নির্দেশ বুঝাতে into বসে। যেমনঃ Speak clearly into the microphone.
Above এর ব্যবহার
১।উপরে বুঝাতে above বসে। যেমনঃ The water came above our knees.
২।অবস্থান বুঝাতে above বসে। যেমনঃ The sun is above our head now.
৩।পরিমাণে বুঝাতে above বসে। যেমনঃ Present temperature is above average.
৪।এতটাই সৎ / ভালো বুঝাতে above বসে। যেমনঃ Hemani is above suspicion.
৫।অতিমাত্রা বুঝাতে above বসে। যেমনঃ I couldn’t hear him above the noise of the traffic.
About এর ব্যবহার
১।সম্পর্কে / বিষয়ে বুঝাতে about বসে। যেমনঃ I knew something about it.
২।চারদিকে বুঝাতে about বসে। যেমনঃ The runners were running about the circle.
৩।উপলক্ষ বুঝাতে about বসে। যেমনঃ He came here about the marriage ceremony.
৪।প্রায় / কাছাকাছি বুঝাতে about বসে। যেমনঃ He has lost about 1 lac taka.
After এর ব্যবহার
১।পরে বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ He came after me.
২।অসংখ্যবার বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ I’ve told him time after not to do that.
৩।পিছনে পিছনে বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ They run after the thief.
৪।ব্যাপক সময় বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ He returned home after a month.
৫।ঠিক পরবর্তী কোন কিছু বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ Issa is the tallest after Mimi.
৬।মোটের উপর বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ After all, he is a good boy.
৭।বিপরিত ঘটনা বুঝাতে after বসে। যেমনঃ The house is pleasantly cool after the extreme heat outside.
Before এর ব্যবহার
১।পূর্বে বুঝাতে before বসে। যেমনঃ He came before lunch.
২।সম্মুখে / সামনে বুঝাতে before বসে। যেমনঃ He stood before me.
৩।তূলনামূলক ভাবে আগে / বিশেষ গুরুত্ব বুঝাতে before বসে। যেমনঃ He puts his work before everything.
Among এর ব্যবহার
১। কিছুর মধ্যে( চারদিক বেষ্টিত ) বুঝাতে among বসে। যেমনঃ There is a house among the trees.
২।দু’য়ের অধিকের মধ্যে বুঝাতে among বসে। যেমনঃ Divided the mangoes among the three boys.
Within এর ব্যবহার
১।সময়ের মধ্যে বুঝাতে within বসে। যেমনঃ He will come back within a month.
২।সামর্থ্যের মধ্যে বুঝাতে within বসে। যেমনঃ We should live within our means.
Over এর ব্যবহার
১।উপর বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ There is a bridge over the river.
২।পারাপার বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ They run over the glass.
৩। সমগ্র / সারা অর্থ বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ They have traveled over the world.
৪।বিপরিত পাশ বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ They live over the road.
৫।অধিক বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ He was in America for over a month.
৬।উপরস্থ কর্মকর্তা বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ He has a director over him.
৭।মাধ্যম বুঝাতে over বসে। যেমনঃ He talked over telephone.
Under এর ব্যবহার
১।নিচে বুঝাতে under বসে। যেমনঃ The ball is under the table.
২।ছোট / কম পরিমান / বয়স বুঝাতে under বসে। যেমনঃ i. He is under 20. ii. He earns under 5000.
৩।অধীনে আর্থ বুঝাতে under বসে। যেমনঃ The building is under construction.
৪।অবস্থা বুঝাতে under বসে। যেমনঃ He is under sentence to death.
Between এর ব্যবহার
১।দুইয়ের মধ্যে বুঝাতে between ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমনঃ i. He stood between his two brothers. ii.Divide the mango between two sisters.
Without এর ব্যবহার
১।ছাড়া অর্থ বুঝাতে without ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমনঃ i. He found the place without difficulty. ii.We can’t live without water.
Beyond এর ব্যবহার
১।পিছনে / অপরদিক অর্থ বুঝাতে beyond বসে। যেমনঃ The road continues beyond the villages up into the hills.
২।সময়ের পরে বুঝাতে beyond বসে। যেমনঃ It won’t go on beyond midnight.
৩।সাধ্যের বাইরে বুঝাতে beyond বসে। যেমনঃ The car was beyond repair.
Since এর ব্যবহার
১।‘হইতে’ অর্থে poinr of time এর পূর্বে since বসে। যেমনঃ since 1971, since Sunday, since June.
Beside এর ব্যবহার
১।পাশে বুঝাতে by এর মত beside বসে। যেমনঃ beside me, beside the man, beside you.
Through এর ব্যবহার
১।ভিতর / মধ্য দিয়ে বুঝাতে Through বসে। যেমনঃ through the forest, through struggle.
Across এর ব্যবহার
১।আড়াআড়ি ভাবে / অপর পার্শ্বে বুঝাতে across বসে। যেমনঃ i. Go across the street, ii. My house is just across the road.
Off এর ব্যবহার
১।দূরে / বিচ্ছিন্ন অর্থে off বসে। যেমনঃ i. Be off from here, ii. Swithch the fan off.
Below এর ব্যবহার
১।নিম্নে বর্নিত, নির্দিষ্ট পরিমাণ বা সংখ্যা কম,পর্যায়ের নিচে বুঝাতে across বসে। যেমনঃ i. My particulars are given below. ii. Rahim has got below 80% marks. iii. He lives below middle class status.
Down এর ব্যবহার
১।উপর থেকে নিচের দিকে বুঝাইতে down বসে। যেমনঃ The boy has fallen down from the roof
Up এর ব্যবহার
১। নিচ থেকে উপরের দিকে বুঝাইতে up বসে। যেমনঃ i. Go up the hill. ii. Climb up the tree.
Besides এর ব্যবহার
১।এছাড়াও বুঝাইতে besides বসে। যেমনঃ I have another pen besides this.
Abide by – You should abide by the rules
Abound in – Fish abounds in this pond.
Abound with – the river abounds with fish
Absent from – He was absent from school
Absorbed in – He is absorbed in studies
Access to – Public has no access to this garden
According to – according to your order I went there
Accompanied by – He was accompanied by his father
Acquainted with – I am acquainted with him.
Accused of – He is accused of theft.
Accustomed to – I am accustomed to such a life
Acquit (one) of – I acquit you of the charge.
Add to – Add this to that
Addicted to – He is addicted to wine
Adjacent to – His school is adjacent to his house
Admit of – Your conduct/ It amits of no excuse [ Admit is followed by of only when it has an impersonal subject, i.e. it or an abstract noun (such as, conduct). But when the subject is personal, admit is not followed by of. I admit (accept) no excuse.]
Admit to – He was admitted to Class VI.
Admit into – He was admitted into the room.
Affection for – The teacher feels affection for every pupil
Affectionate to – He is affectionate to me
Afraid of – I am not afraid of ghosts
Agree with )a person), on (a point), to (a proposal)
I agree with you on this point, but I cannot agree to all the proposals.
Aim at – He aimed his gun at the bird
Alarmed at – We were alarmed at the news
Allot to – One room has been allotted to him
Alternative to – This question is alternative to that
Aloof from – Keep yourself aloof from bad company
Ambition for – He has no ambition for fame in life
Angry with (a person), for (something) , at (one’s conduct) – He is angry with me for speaking against him. Iam angry at your conduct.
Annoyed with (a person), for (something) – I was annoyed with him for being late
Anxious about, for – I am anxious about your health. He is anxious for getting a job.
Apart from – apart from the prize, he got a certificate.
Appeal to (a person), for (something) against (a wrong) – He appealed to the Headmaster for pardon. They appealed against the verdict of the lower court.
Appetite for – The patient has no appetite for food
Apply to (a person), for (a thing) – He applied to the Secretary for the post
Aptitude for – I have no aptitude for Mathematics
Arrive at – we arrived at the station in time
Argue with (a person), for or against ( a thing) – I argued with him for (or against) the point
Assign to – He assigned the task to me
Ashamed of – He is not ashamed of his conduct
Ashamed for – I feel ashamed for you (A.L.D. – Hornby)
Attend to – attend to your lesson
Attach to – attach this slip to the letter
Attend on (upon) – She attends on (upon) her mother
Avail (oneself) of – You must avail yourself of the opportunity
Aware of – He is aware of the fact
Based on – Your remarks are not based on facts.
Beg ( a person) for ( a thing) – He begged me for the favour
Beg ( a thing ) of (a person) – He begged the favour of me
Believe in – I do not believe in his honesty
Belong to – This book belongs to me
Bent on – He is bent on doing this
Beware of – Beware of pick pockets
Blessed with – He is blessed with (=possesses) good health
Blessed in – He is blessed ( = happy) in his children.
Blind of – He is blind of one eye
Blind to – He is blind to his own faults
Blush with, for – She blushed with shame
[There is no cause to blush for me (COD)]
Boast of – Do not boast of your wealth
Born of, in – He was born of poor parents. He was born in poverty
Bound for – The ship is bound for England
Brood on, over – Do not brood over your misfortune
Burst out – He burst out laughing at my joke
Busy with – He is busy with his studies
Callous to – He is callous to my suffering
Capable of – He is capable of doing this alone
Capacity for – He has capacity for hard work
Care for – I do not care for you
Care of – He is certain of his ground
Charge (a person) with (a fault), on or against (a person) – He was charged with theft. Theft was charged on (against) him
Close to – The school is very close to our house
Clothed in, with – He is clothed in wool. He was clothed with shame. [ A.L.D]
Clue to – Find out the clue to the mystery
Come of – He comes of a noble family.
Commence on – Our examination commences on the 3rd July
Comment on – He commented favourably on the point
Comment on – He commented favourably on the point
Compare with (similar things), to (dissimilar things) – Rabindranath may be compared with Shakespeare. Anger is compared to fire.
Compete with (some one), for (something) – I competed with him for the first prize.
Complain to ( a person), against (another), about ( a thing) – They complained (made a complaint) to the Director against the Manager about his behaviour
Comply with – I shall comply with your request
Composed if – Water is composed of Hydrogen and Oxygen
Confident of – I am confident of success
Confined in (a room), to (bed) – He is confined in a room for five days. He is confined to bed.
Congratulate on – I congratulate you on your success.
Conscious of – He is conscious of his weakness
Consist of – This class consists of fifty boys./ The committee consists of five members
Consist in – Happiness consists in contentment.
Consist with – His statement does not consist with reason
Consistent with – Your action is not consistent with the rules
Consult with ( a person), on or about (a thing) – I consulted with him on/about the matter.
Contrary to – His action is contrary to his words
Contribute to – He contributed one thousand rupees to the Flood Relief Fund
Control over – He has no control over his brother
Count for – His advice counts for nothing (i.e. of no effect)
Count upon – I cannot cope with the situation
Crave for – He craves for wealth (COD)
Deaf of – He is deaf of one ear . (COD)
Deaf to – He is deaf to my rquest
Deal in – He deals in rice/ clothes etc
Deal with – He deals well with the customers
Dedicate to – This book is dedicated to his father
Delight in – He takes delight in music
Depend on – Success depends on hard work
Deprived of – He was deprived of his property
Desire for – He has no desire for fame
Desirous of – He is desirous of building a new house
Despair of – Do not despair of success.
Destined to – He was destined to death
Devoid of – He is devoid of common sense
Devote to – he devotes much time to study
Die of (a disease), from (an effect), fpr (a cause), by (poison), in (peace) – He died of cholera. He died from over-eating. He died for his country. He died by poison. Let me die in peace.
Differ with (a perosn), on (a Point), in (opinion) – I differ with you on this point . They differe in their opinions.
Differ from – This thing differs from that
Difference between – There is no difference between the two brothers
Different from – This book is different from that.
Diffident of – I am diffident of success.
Disgrace to – He is a disgrace to his family./ Slums are a disgrace to any city.
Disgusted with (a person), at (a thing) – I am disgusted with him at his conduct
Dislike for – He has dislike for dogs.
Displeased with ( aperson) at (a thing) – I am displeased with him at his conduct.
Dispose of – He disposed of his books
Dispose off – The old books were disposed off
Distinguish one thing from (another) – A child cannot distinguish good from evil
Distinguish between – Distinguish between a phrase and a clause
Divert from – The loud music diverted my attention from study
Divide into (parts) – It was divided into several parts
Divide between (two), among (more than two) – Divide the mangoes between Ram and Shyam. Divide the mangoes among the boys
Due to – His absence is due to illness./ He is absent due to his illness.
Dull at – He is dull at Physics/ Mathematics etc.
Eager for, about – He is eager for promotion in service. He is eager about the result. (COD)
Eligible for – He is eligible for the post
Encroach on – Do not encroach on my land
End in – All his plans ended in smoke
Endowed with – He is endowed with talents
Engaed with (a person) in (a work) – I was engaged with him in talk
Engaged to – Lila was engaged to him.
Enquire of (a person), into (a matter) – He enquired of me into the matter
Enter into – He entered into details. [but] he entered the room.
Envy of – I have no envy of home(p.o.d)
Envious of- I am not envious of his riches.
Entitled to – he is entitled to a reward for his honesty.
Equal in ( rank) , with ( a person) , to (a task) – mr. bose is equal in rank with mr.ghosh. he rose equal to the occasion.
Escape from- the man escaped from the prison.
Escape by- he escaped by a hair –breadth.
Esteem for- he has esteem for the superiors.
Essential to – food is essential to health.
Excel in- he excels in painting)cod)
Excuse for- he will not be excused for coming late.
Excuse from- they may be excused from complying with this regulation.
Exempt from- he has exempted from the fine.
Faith in – I have no faith in him/ he has no faith in religion.
Faith with (break fast)- he broke faith with me.
Faithful to – the dog is faithful to his master.
False to – I cannot be false (unfaithful) to may friend.
Famous for- radhanagar is famous for the birth place of raja rammohun.
Familer with – he is familiar with my brother.
Fatal to- the doctor’s mistake proved fatal to the patient’s life.
Favour with- would you favour me with an early reply?
(in) favour of – he spoke in favour of his friend.
Favarouble to (a person) for(something)- this situation is favourable to me for doing this.
Feel for, in –I feel for you in your trouble.
Fit for – he is not fit for the job.
Fond of- she is fond of sweets.
Free from – he is now free from danger.
Fill with – this tank is filled with water
Full of- this tank is full of water.
Glance at- he glanced at me casually ./ have a glance at the book.
Good at – he is good at tennis.[ but, he is good for nothing]
Grateful to (a person) for (something)- I am grateful to you for your help.
Greed for- he has no greed for wealth.
Guess at – can you guess at her age?
Guilty of- he is guilty of murder.
Hanker after- do not hanker after wealth.
Hard at- he is hard at work before examination.
Hard of- he is hard of hearing.
Heir of ( a person), to (a property)- he is the heir of his uncle(to the uncle’s property)
Hope for- let us hope for the best.
Hunger for- his hunger for knowledge surprised us.
Ignorant of- he is ignorant of this rule.
Ill with- he is ill with fever.
Impose on- the task was imposed on me.
Indebted to- I am indebted to him for this help.
Indifferent to- he is indifferent to our problem.
Indulge in – do not indulge in wine.
[but , do not indulge him with your support.]
Inform (a person) , of (something) – he informed the police of the murder
Inferior to- -this orange is inferior to that.
Inquire of( a person), about, into (a matter)- I inquired of him about (into) the matter.
Insist on- he insisted on my going home.
Interest in- he has special interest in history.
Interfere with (a person) , in( a matter) do not interfere with me in my business.
Invite to – I invited him to dinner.
Involved in – he involved in the plot.
Jealous of- l am not at all jealous of his fortune.
Jump at- do not jump at the offer.
Jump to- do not hastily jump to a conclusion.
Jump on- the cat jumped on the table
Jump over – he jumped over the fence.
Junior to – he is junior to me in service.
Junior by – he is junior to me by five years.
Justification of/ for- there is no justification of(for) his conduct.
Key to- he has found out the key to his problem.
Kind( noun) of- what kind of paper is it?
[so kind (= kindness) of you to see me]
Kind(adj) to- she is very kind to the children.
Lack of- I have no lack of friends.
Lacking in – he is lacking in courage.
Lame of – he is lame of one leg.
Lament for- she lamented for her child.
Late in – why are you late so coming.? Laugh at- do not laugh at the poor.
Lay by- lay by something for the old age.
Liable to- he is liable to fine for his misconduct.
Linking for- she has a liking for music.
Limit to- you should have a limit to your demands
. Limited to- invitation was limited to members only.
Listen to- listen to me. Listen to the news on the radio.
Live on (food)- the cow lives on grass.
Live by- he lives by honest means.
Live beyond, within – he lives beyond his means. He lives within his means.
Live for( an ideal)- he lives for frame.
Look at – look at the moon.
Look after – there is none to look after her.
Look for- l am looking for a good job.
Look into- l am looking into the matter.
Look over- he is looking over the answer-papers.
Look up- look up the word in the dictionary.
Long for – he longed for frame.
Loyal to – he is loyal to his master.
Mad with- he is mad with pain.
Made of – this ring is made of gold.
Make for- the ship made for England. / make for England at your earliest.
Make out – I cannot make out what you say.
Marry to – he married his daughter to a rich man. She was married to a rich man.
Marry. – She married a Frenchman(A.L.D. Hornby)
Mourn for, over – don’t mourn for(over) the dead.
Need for , of – I have no need for more money. I am in need of money.
Object to – he objected to my proposal.
Oblige ( a person) with or by (doing) something – he obliged me with a loan, or by giving me a loan.
Obliged to – ( a person),for ( a thing) – I am obliged to him for his kind help.
Obsessed by, with – he is obsessed by the idea/ why are people so obsessed with money?
Obstacle to – proverty is often an obstacle to higher studies.
Occupied with ( a business) ,in (doing a thing) – he is occupied with his studies. He is occupied in writing a letter.
Occur to- (one’s mind) – the idea never occurred to me.
Occur in ( an essay , a poem etc.) – this line occurs in the poem ‘ the cloud’, written by Shelley
Offend against – you have offended against good manners.
Offended with ( a person) at (an action)- I am offended (displeased) with you at your conduct.
Offensive to – this acrid smell is offensive to me.
Officiate for ( a person) in ( a post) – he officiated for me in that post.
Open to – his plan is open to objection.
Open at- open at page 20.
Opportunity for, of – I have no opportunity for (of) doing the work.
Opposite to- your idea is opposite to mine . our house is opposite to the park.
Overcome with , by (emotion etc)- he was overcome with fatigue . he was overcome by anger .(COD)
Owe to, for – I owe my all to him./ he still owes for the goods supplied to him.
Parallel to – this road is parallel to that.
Part from ( a person) , with ( a thing) – he parted from his friend . she parted with the ring(COD).
Partial to – he is partial to his son.
Partiality for – he has no partiality for his son.
Pass for- he passes for a clever man.
Pass away- he passed away last night.
Persist in – he persisted in disturbing me.
Pity for- have pity for the poor.
Play on – he played on guitar.
Plead with ( a person) for or against (something)- I am pleased with him . I am pleased at the news.
Polite in, to- he is polite in his manners . he is polite to strangers.
Poor in (spirit)- don’t be poor in spirit . he is poor in mathematics.
Popular with he is popular with all for his good behavior.
Prefer (one) to (another) – I prefer coffee to tea.
Preferable to – death is preferable to dishonor
Preside over- he presided over the meeting.
Pretend to- he does not pretend to high birth.
Prevent (one) from (doing something) – I prevented him from going there.
Pride(oneself) on, (take pride in)- he prides himself on (takes pride in) his high birth.
Proud of- he is proud of his position.
Prior to – prior to that, he was in a wretched condition.
Prohibit from- I prohibited him from going there.
Prompt in (answers), prompt at (figures)- he is prompt in his answers . he is prompt at figures.
Prone to – he is prone to idleness.
Proportionate to- punishment should be Proportionate to offence.
Provide against (evil days). For (children), with (a thing) – You must provide against evil days for your children. I provide (supply) him with food
Qualified for – He is qualified for the post.
Quick at, of – He is quick at figures. He is quick of understanding
Quarrel with ( a person) for, over, about (something) – They quarreled with one another for (over, about) the property.
Refer to – Refer the matter to him for enquiry
Rejoice at , in – Everyone rejoiced at (in) her success.
[Nesfield says “rejoice in one’s own success”, but “rejoice at the success of another”. But COD does not make any such distinction]
Relevant to – Your remark is not relevant to the point.
Rely on, upon – You can rely on him./ He can be relied upon for that kind of help
Remedy for – There is no remedy for this disease. (COD)
[Nesfield says “remedy for or against snakebite”.]
Remind (one) of (a thing) – I reminded him of his promise.
Render into – Render the passage into Hindi
Replace (one thing) with another – Replace this chair with a new one (COD)
[“In a passive sentence where it is necessary to use ‘by’ to denote an agent, ‘with’ must be used before the name of the thing that is substituted”. – Current English Usage by F.T. Wood]
Require (a thing) of (a person) – I required a loan of him./ What do you require of me?
Resign (oneself) to – I resigned myself to fate.
(In) respect of [ in point of ] – He is junior to me in respect of service.
(With) respect to – We are talking with respect to that matter
Respond to – Nobody responded to my call.
Responsible to (an authority) for ( an action) – He is responsible to the committee for his action.
Rest with, upon – The whole matter rests (depends) with you. I rest upon (rely on) your promise.
Restore to – Restore his property to him
Restrict to – Admission was restricted to students
Retire from, on – He retired from service on a pension
Rich in – Bihar is rich in minerals
Rid of – Get rid of bad company
Rob of – Somebody robbed him of his purse
Sanguine of – She is sanguine of her success
Satisfied with, of – I am satisfied with him. I am satisfied of the truth
Satisfaction in, with – I find satisfaction in gardening. Great was his satisfaction with his result.
Search for – Their search for the thing was of no avail
(In) search of – They are in search of a nice bird
Sensible of – She is sensible of the risk
Sensitive to – She is sensitive to cold
Sentence to, for – He was sentenced to death for murder
Senior to – He is senior to me by four years. I am senior to him in service.
Send for – Send for a doctor immediately
Sick of , for – I am sick of fever. I am sick of this idle life. He is sick for home
Similar to – This pen is similar to that
Sink in (mud), into (the sea, river etc) – He sank in mud. The ship sank into the sea.
Slow of (speech), at (figures), in (doing something) – He is slow of speech. He is slow at figures. He is slow in writing.
Smell of – This glass smells of wine
Smile on – Fortune smiled on him
Stare at – She started at me.
Stick to – He sticks to his decision
Subject to – This is subject to approval of the committee
Succeed in – He will succeed in life
Suffer from – He is suffering from fever
Superior to – This type of rice is superior to that
Supply (a person) with (a thing), to (a person) – He supplied us with food. He supplied food to us.
Sure of – I am sure of success
Sympathy for – I have no sympathy for him
Take after – The boy takes after (resembles) his father.
Talk to, with (a person), of, about, over (a thing) – I am talking to (with) Mr.Roy of (about, over) the matter.
Taste for – She has no taste for music
Tell upon – Over-eating tells upon health
Tide over – He will soon tide over the difficulty
Tired of – I am tired of doing the same thing day after day
Think of, about (a person), over (something) – What do you think of (about) him?
Think carefully over his advice.
Tolerant of – We must be tolerant of opposition
Triumph over – Jim and Della triumphed over their poverty
True to – He is true to his master
Trust (a person) with (a thing), to (a person), in God – You may trust me with the work. You may trust the work to me . Trust in God.
Unite with – Be united with your friends
Useful to (a person), for (some purpose) – This book is useful to us for examination
Vain of – She is vain of her beauty
Vary from – His opinion varies from his brother’s
Vexed with (a person), for, at (a thing) – He is vexed with me at my conduct . He is vexed with me for opposing him
Void of – He is void of common sense
Wait for – I waited for him for two hours
Wait on – The nurse waited on (attended ) the patient
Want of – He warned me of the danger
Weak in – He is weak in Mathematics
Weak of – He is weak of understanding
Weary of – He is weary of hard life
Wish for – I do not wish for name and fame
Wonder at – I wonder at his ignorance
Worthy of – He is worthy of our praise
Yield to – He yielded to his enemy
Zeal for – He has a zeal for social work
Zealous for, in – He is zealous for improvement in a good cause
Zest for – She has no zest for music
The Appropriate Prepositions are very difficult to remember. But if we arrange them in accordance with Prepositions, we can notice some sort of similarity and it becomes easy to learn. Moreover, our ear is tuned with the use of Prepositions.
Study the words that take the Preposition ‘for’ after them. You have learnt the applications of the words. Now see them systematically.
NOUNS : [FOR]
Affection for Ambition for Anxiety for Apology for Appetite for Aptitude for Blame for Candidate for Capacity for Compassion for Compensation for Contempt for Craving for Desire for Dislike for Esteem for Fitness for fondness for Greed for Guarantee for Hunger for Leisure for linking for match for Motive for opportunity for partiality for passion for pretext for remedy for reputation for shame for taste for zeal for zest for
ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES : [FOR]
Anxious for Bound for Celebrated for Conspicuous for Customary for Designed for Distinguished for (something)
Distinguished by (some action)
Eager for Eligible for Eminent for Famous for Fit for Favourable for Good for Grateful for Necessary for Notorious for Penitent for Prepared for Proper for Qualified for Readu for Remarkable for Sorry for Sufficient for Useful for Zealous for Verbs : [ for] Beg for Care for Clamour for Feel for Hope for Long for Lament for Make for Mourn for Pine for Pray for Stipulate for Start for Wait for Wish for Yearn for
The following words take the Preposition ‘from’ after them: NOUS : [FROM] Abstinence from digression from Descent from escape from inference from respite from
ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES: [FROM] Absent from Alienated from Apart frp, Disqualified from Distinct from Different from Precluded from Remote from
VERBS : [FROM] Abstain from Alight from Avert from Cease from Debar from Derive from Derogate from Desist from Detract from Deviate from Differ from Digress from Dissent from Dissuade from Elicit from Emerge from Escape from Exclude from Excuse from Preserve from Prevent from Prohibit from Protect from Quote from Recoil from Recover from Refrain from Result from Retire from Vary from
IN The following words take the Preposition ‘in’ after them:
NOUNS : [IN] COMPLICITY IN (A CRIME) Concurrence in (a proposal) Confidence in (a person) Delight in ( something) Experience in (doing something) Faith in (a person or thing) Jurisdiction in (a law suit) Laxity in (morals) Readiness in answering (a question) Temperance in diet.
ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES :(IN) Absorbed in (study etc) Accomplished In (art etc) Accurate in (statistics etc) Apt in (Mathematics etc) Assiduous in (studies) Backward in (something) Bigoted in (opinion) Confirmed in (a habit) Correct in (a statement) Defective in (point of style) Deficient in (energy) Diligent in (business) Engaged in (business) Entangled in (a plot) Enveloped in (mist) Experienced in (something) Fertile in (resources) Foiled in (an attempt) Fruitful in (resources) Held in (esteem) Honest in (dealings) Impressed in (thought) Implicated in (a crime) Indebted in (a large sum) Interested in (a person or thing) Invested in (govt. paper) Involved in (difficulties) Late in (doing something) Lavish in (expenditure) Lax in (morals) Obstinate in (resistance) Polite in (manners) Poor in (spirit) Proficient in (any subject) Profuse in (offers) Remiss in (duties) Rich in (property) Skilful/slothful in (business) Slow in (doing something) Temperate in (habits) Veiled in (mystery) Versed in (any subject) Weak in (head) Zealous in (a cause) VERBS : [ IN] Abound in (fish etc) Arrive in (a country) Believe in (one’s honesty) Consist in (facts or results) Dabble in (politics) Deal in (cloth etc.) Delight in (music etc) Employ in ( a work) Enlist in ( the army etc) Excel in (languages etc) Fail in (an attempt) Fall in (love) Glory in (success) Increase in (wisdom) Indulge in (wine) Involve in (debt) Join in (a game0 Labour in (a good cause) Originate in (a thing or place) Preserve in (an effort) Persist in (doing something) Rejoice in (own success)
The following words take the Preposition ‘of’ after them: NOUNS : [ OF ] Abatement of (the fever) Abhorrence of (ingratitude) Assurance of (help) Betrayal of (a secret) Cause of ( troubles) Charge of (murder etc) Consciousness of (guilt) Consideration of (a thing) Conviction of (guilt) Decision of (some dispute) Distrust of (a person or thing) Doubt of or about (a thing) Economy of (time) Endurance of (pain) Evasion of (a rule) Experience of (a thing) Failure of (a plan) Freedom of (action) Hatred of or for (a person) Heir of (a person) Hope of or for (better luck) Imputation of (guilt) Infliction of (punishment) Judge of (a matter) Proof of (guilt) (In) pursuance of (an object) Relation of (one thing) to (another) Result of (a proceeding) (In) search of (wealth) Tenacity of (purpose) Want of (memory) Witness of (an event)
ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES : [ OF ]
Accused of ( a crime) Acquitted of ( a charge) Afraid of (death) Ambitious of (distinction) Apprehensive of (danger) Apprised of (a fact) Ashamed of (dullness) Cautious of (anything) Certain of (success) Cognisant of (a truth) Commemorative of (a victory) Convinced of (a fact) Covetous of (goods) Cured of (a disease) Composed of (a material) Confident of (success) Conscious of (a fault) Convicted of (a crime) Defeated of (purpose) Deserving of (praise) Desirous of (success) Despondent of (success) Destitute of (money) Devoid of (common sense) Diffident of (success) Disappointed of (anything) Distrustful of (a man’s motives) Dull of (understanding) Defrauded of (earnings) Depleted of (strength) Deprived of (something) Easy of (access) Ampty of (contents) Envious of (another’s success) Fearful of (something) Fond of (something) Full of (persons or things) Greedy of (riches) Guilty of (theft) Healed of (a disease) Assure of (the truth) Aware of (intentions) Bereft of (a child) Blind of (one eye) Born of (rich parents) Capable of (improvement) Careful of (money) Heedless of (consequences) Hopeful of (success) Ignorant of (any subject) Impatient of (reproof) Inclusive of (extras) Independent of (parents) Indicative of (motives) Informed of (a fact) Innocent of (a charge) Irrespective of (consequences) Lame of (one leg) Lavish of (money) Neglectful if (interests) Negligent of (duties) Productive of (wealth) Proud of (position) Quick of (understanding) Receptive of (advice) Reckless of (expenditure) Regardless of (consequences) Repentant of (sin) Sanguine of (success) Sensible of (kindness) Sick of (waiting) Slow of (hearing) Subversive of (discipline) Sure of (success) Suspicious of (meaning) Thankful of (favours) Tired of (doing something) Vain of (fine dress etc) Weary of (doing something) Worthy of (praise) Verbs: [ of ] Accuse of (some misdeed) Acquit of (blame) Admit of (an excuse) Beware of 9something) Boast of (something) Complain of (something) Dream of (strange things) Fail of 9a purpose) Heal of (a disease) Hear of (an event) Inform a person of (a thing) Inquire of (a person) Consist of (materials) Convict a person of (a crime) Convince a person of (a fact) Cure a man of (a disease) Die of (a disease) Dispose of (property) Judge of or by (something) Purge the mind of (false notions) Repent of (misdeed) Smell of (fish) Suspect of (treachery) Taste of (salt)
ON The following words take the Preposition ‘on’ after them: Nouns : [ On] Assault on (a person or thing) Attack on ( a place) Authority on (a subject) Controversy on (a point) Decision on (some case) Dependence on (a person or thing) Imposition on (the guilty) Influence n (a man’s action) Lecture on (a subject)
ADJECTIVES AND PARTICIPLES: [ ON ]
Based on (something) Bent on (doing something) Conditional on (something) Entailed on ( a person) Founded on (fact) Imperative on (a person) Consequent on (some cause) Determined on (doing a thing) Engraved on (the memory) Incumbent on (a person) Resolved on (doing a thing) Silent on (a point) VERBS : [ ON ] Calculate on (success) Decide on (something) Err on (the side of leniency) Encroach on (one’s authority) Expatiate on (a subject) Fall on (the enemy) Fire on (a city) Gain on (someone in a race) Harp on (something) Hinge on (an event) Impose on (a person) Infringe on (a man’s rights) Insist on (something being done) Intrude on (one’s leisure) Lean on (a staff) Mediate on (some subject) Operate on (a patient) Ponder on (a subject) Pounce on (a thing) Prevail on (a person) to do something Pride oneself on (a thing) Smile on (a person) Speak on (a subject) Trample on (justice)