Narration লিখার নিয়ম গুলা !short cut

Posted on : December 10, 2017 | post in : ইংরেজি পাস ঠেকাই কে 2 ? |Leave a reply |

bokta যাহা বলে তাহাই narration বা উক্তি।

  Narration দুই প্রকার :
1.Direct Narration
2.Indirect Narration

     Direct Narration: যখন কোন কথা কে পরিবর্তন না করে অবিকল সে ভাষাই ব্যক্ত করা হয় তখন তাকে Direct Narration বলে। ইহাকে inverted commas এর মধ্যে রাখা হয়।

  Inverted commas এর ভিতরের অংশে বক্তা তার বক্তব্য উদ্ধৃতি করে আর একে Reported Speech বলে। বক্তার বক্তব্যে বাইরের verb কে reporting verb বলে।

    Indirect Narration: যখন কোন কথা কে পরিবর্তন করে সে ভাষা ব্যক্ত করা হয় তখন তাকে Indirect Narration বলে।

    *****Narration পারতে হলে  জানতে হবে।

  1. Sentence চেনার উপায় ।
2. Sentence এর পরিবর্তন ।
3. Person এর পরিবর্তন ।
4. Verb এর পরিবর্তন ।

   ***1. Sentence চেনার উপায় ।

  1.Assertive= Subject প্রথমে থাকলে ।
যেমন: Tanvir Anam is my son.

2.Interrogative=Wh Question +Auxiliary Verb অথবা Auxiliary Verb  প্রথমে থাকলে । শেষে ?
যেমন: Where are you going ? Are you eating?

3.Imperative=Present Form, Don’t/Never+Present Form, Please,Kindly,Let প্রথমে থাকলে ।
যেমন:See it.Don’t call there.Please sit down.

4.Optative=May  প্রথমে থাকলে ।  শেষে Full Stop.
যেমন: May you live long.

5.Exclamatory=What a/an,How+adjective,Hurrah,Alas ইত্যাদি থাকলে । শেষে !
যেমন: What a fine boy you are!

        Said to—–Comma

1.Assertive= told—–that
2.Interrogative=asked—-if/wh question
3.Imperative=present form হলে ordered —to
don’t/never হলে prohibited— not to
please/kindly হলে requested—to
উপদেশ হলে advised—to
Let থাকলে proposed to—that (might)

5.Exclamatory=exclaimed with joy—that
exclaimed with sorrow—that

   *** 3. Person এর পরিবর্তন ।

First Person – Reporting Verb এর Subject অনুসারে । (I,me,my,we,us,our)

Second Person- Reporting Verb এর Object অনুসারে (You,your)

  Third Person- পরিবর্তন নেই ।

   ***4. Verb এর পরিবর্তন ।

  Present form হয় Past form Past form– had+vpp
was,were–had been
must–had to

did–had পরের verb টি VPP
do/does প্রশ্নের সময় উঠে যায় ।

  *** পরিবর্তন হয় না


  For example
Direct: Kabir said to Shawan, ”I write a letter.”
Indirect: Kabir told Shawan  that he wrote a letter.

1. Sentence চেনার উপায় =Sentence টি assertive
2. Sentence এর পরিবর্তন = told–that
3. Person এর পরিবর্তন =I first person Subject kabir তাই he হয়েছে
4. Verb এর পরিবর্তন = present form–past form হয়েছে

   *** বি:দ্র= ‍said (past tense)এর স্থানে say/shall,will(present/future) হলে 4নং Verb এর কোন পরিবর্তন হবে না

For example
Direct: Kabir says to Shawan, ”I write a letter.”  Indirect: Kabir tells Shawan  that he writes a letter.

***Rules on passage narration

Rule-1: Reported speech-এর মধ্যে কোনো ব্যক্তি বা প্রাণীর নাম ধরে ডাকার ব্যবহার থাকলে তা reporting verb এর সঙ্গে সংযুক্ত হবে। যেমন:

a. He said, ‘Sheba, do not quarrel.’
Answer: He forbade Sheba to quarrel.
b. They said, ‘Heru, you will attend the meeting.’ Answer: They said to Heru that he would attend the meeting.
c. Kamal said, ‘Nizam, do you know me?’
Answer: Kamal asked Nizam if he knew him.
d. ‘Where did you go yesterday, Shuli ?’ said Apu. Answer: Apu asked Shuli where she had gone the previous day.
e. She said, ‘Will you go to college, Apurba?’ Answer: She asked Apurba if he would go to college.
Try yourself
a. I said, ‘Riku, you will come to Dhaka tomorrow with your friend’.
b. Sumon said, ‘You did not do well in the examination, Razib’.
c. The teacher said, ‘Hassan, you must buy new English book as early as possible’.
d. The mistress of the house said, ‘You need not come here tomorrow, Shuvo’.
e. She said, ‘Nipa, you are a very good, sincere and hardworking girl’.

  Rule-2: Reporting verb-টি মাঝে বা শেষে থাকলেও indirect করার সময় তাকে sentence-এর শুরুতে নিয়ে আসতে হবে। যেমন:

a. ‘You look a little bit like my mother’, Jerry said to the authoress, ‘Especially in the dark by the fire.’
Answer: Jerry said to the authoress that she looked a little bit like his mother especially in the dark by the fire.
b. ‘Follow my example,’ she said to me, ‘and never eat more than one thing for luncheon.’
Answer: She advised me to follow her example and never to eat more than one thing for luncheon.
c. ‘I have made a terrible mistake,’ said the man, ‘I have forgotten to pay my exam fee’.
Answer: The man said that he had made a terrible mistake and added that he had forgotten to pay his exam fee.
d. ‘You will come to college regularly,’ the teacher said to the students, ‘otherwise, you will not understand it.’
Answer: The teacher said to the students that they would go to college regularly, otherwise, they would not understand it.
Try yourself

a. ‘You have to read English more and more,’ the teacher said to the students, b. ‘Otherwise, you will not cut a good figure in English’.
c. ‘Nazrul is not only the national poet of Bangladesh, father said to his son, ‘But also a rebel poet’.
d. ‘Most of the students of our college are weak in English,’ she said, ‘they are not sincere enough in English’.

  Rule-3: পরপর দুটি উক্তি থাকলে also said/and added/also asked হয়। কিন্তু ৩টি উক্তি থাকলে also added /further added/again said ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন:

a. Jerry said, ‘I can chop some wood today. I shall come again tomorrow’.
Answer: Jerry said that he could chop some wood that day and added that he would go again the next day.
b. She said to me, ‘What is your name. Where do you live?’
Answer: She asked me what my name was and also asked where I lived.
c. He said to us, ‘I came here yesterday. I will go to Sirajgonj tomorrow.’
Answer: He said to us that he had gone there the previous day and added that he would go to Sirajgonj the next day.
d. The man said to me, ‘I will come here tomorrow. I will finish this work as soon as possible.’
Answer: The man said to me that he would go there the next day and added that he would finish that work as soon as possible.
Try yourself:
a. The man said to me, ‘Please, lend me some money. I shall return it to you tomorrow’.
b. I said to the little girl, ‘What is your name? What class do you read in?’
c. She said to me, ‘I sent the parcel to my mother yesterday. She will get it most probably tomorrow.’
Rule-4:Yes/no থাকলে যথাক্রমে replied in the affirmative that এবং replied in the negative that ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন:

a. ‘Yes, I have finished reading the book,’ I replied.
Answer: I replied in the affirmative that I had finished reading the book.
b. She said, ‘No, I have not seen him today.’
Answer: She replied in the negative that she had not seen him that day.
c. Jhumu said to Mitu, ‘Are you going to Pabna tomorrow?’ ‘No, I have changed my decision,’ said Mitu.
Answer: Jhumu asked Mitu if she was going to Pabna the next day. Mitu replied in the negative that she had changed her decision.
d. The man said to his son, ‘Are you ill.’ ‘No, I am not ill,’ replied the son.
Answer: The man asked his son if he was ill. The son replied in the negative that he was not ill.

Try yourself:
a. Rahim said to me, ‘yes, I shall go to your house tomorrow. Then I shall go my teacher’s house ’ b. ‘Yes, we will learn our lessons tomorrow,’ the students said to the teacher. c. The rich man said to the villagers, ‘Yes, I shall establish a college in this village next year.’

   Rule-5: Sir/Madam-থাকলে respectfully ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন:
a. ‘Yes, sir,’ she replied, ‘I have done my duty.’
Answer: She respectfully replied in the affirmative that she had done her duty.
b. Looking at my hands the beggar said, ‘Madam, please give me your cardigan.’
Answer: Looking at my hands the beggar respectfully requested me to give him my cardigan.
c. The student replied, ‘No, I have not learnt my lessons today, Sir.’
Answer: The student respectfully replied in the negative that he had not learnt his lessons that day.
d. The man said, ‘Yes, Madam, I have completed the work.’
Answer: The man respectfully replied in the affirmative that he had completed the work.
Try yourself: a. ‘Yes, Sir, I came here yesterday,’ the labour said to his master, ‘I will go there again tomorrow.’
b. ‘No, Sir, I have not learnt my lessons today,’ the student said to the teacher, ‘I was ill yesterday and that is why I could not prepare my lessons.’
c. ‘Yes, madam, I will go to market tomorrow,’ the maid said to the mistress of the house, ‘Then I will inform you in detail about this matter .

  Rule-6: যদি কাউকে address করা হয় তবে addressing as brother/sister/friend দিয়ে শুরু করতে হয়। যেমন:

a. ‘Are you hungry, brothers?’ said the wise king.
Answer: Addressing as brother the wise king asked if they were hungry.
b. The captain said, ‘My friends, be always ready to face our enemy.’
Answer: Addressing as friend the captain ordered them to be always ready to face their enemy.
c. ‘Dear friends,’ the patriot said, ‘Listen to me.’
Answer: Addressing as dear friend the patriot advised to listen to him.
Try yourself
a. The teacher said, ‘Dear students, you should be attentive in the class, otherwise, you will not be able to cut a good figure in the final examination.’
b. The man said to me, ‘Brother, will you help me to perform the work tomorrow?’

Rule-7: by Allah/by God ইত্যাদি থাকলে swearing by Allah/swearing by God ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হয়। যেমন:
a. ‘By Allah,’ he replied, ‘I will not leave this house.’
Answer: Swearing by Allah he replied that he would not leave that house.
b. ‘By God,’ she replied, ‘I will not go to London.’
Answer: Swearing by God she replied that she would not go to London.
c. ‘By Allah, we will play in this field,’ the boys said.
Answer: Swearing by Allah the boys said that they would play in that field.
d. She said, ‘By Jove, I will come here tomorrow.’
Answer: Swearing by Jove she said that she would go there the next day.

Rule-8: Present participle অপরিবর্তিত অবস্থায় শুরুতে বসে। যেমন:
a. ‘Are you brothers?’ asked the mistress of the house, turning to the dervishes.
Answer: Turning to the dervishes the mistress of the house asked if they were brothers.
b. ‘Why have you come here?’ said Mr. Kamal turning to the stranger.
Answer: Turning to the stranger Mr. Kamal asked why he had gone there.
c. ‘Why have you not learnt your lessons?’ the teacher asked the students coming to the class.
Answer: Coming to the class the teacher asked the students why they have not learnt their lessons.

    **** অথবা অন্য নিয়মে

  Rules of Changing Narration

     According to Tense:
a). Direct speech এর reporting verb present tense, present perfect tense, Future Tense এর হলে Reported Speech এর verb এর ense এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না। কেবল person পরিবর্তন হয়।

  Direct: He says, “I am ill.”
Indirect: He says that he is ill.

    b). Reporting verb টি past tense হলে Reported speech এর verb পরিবর্তিত হয়ে Corresponding past tense হয়।

  Note: Direct Speech থেকে Indirect Speech এ করার নিয়ম নিচে দেখানো হল:

                    Direct                           Indirect

    Present Indefinite Tense
He said, “I write a letter.”                      He said that he wrote a letter.

   Present Continuous Tense
He said, “I am reading.”                          He said that he was reading

Present Perfect Tense
She said, “I have done my duty.                    She said that she had done her duty

    Present Perfect Continuous Tense
They said, “We have been working for two hours.”   They said that they had been working for two hours

   . Past Indefinite Tense
He said, “I wrote a letter.”                        He said that he had written a letter.

     Past Continuous Tense
Molly said, “I was reading.”                         Molly said that she had been reading.

   Past Perfect Tence
Bellal said ti me, ”you had eaten”                    Bellal said to me  that I had eaten.

  Future Tense
She said to me, “I shall help you.”                  She said that she would help me

   . According to Modal Verb:
Direct Indirect

Rita said to me, “You will go home tomorrow.”

‘would’   Rita said to me that I would go home next day.

Refat said, “I shall do the work.”

Refat said that she would to the work.

He said, “I can finish the work.”

He said that he could finish the work.

Pritam said, “I may go to school”.

Pritam said that he might go to school.

   Wish, would, rather, sooner, it is high time এর পর unreal past tense অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।
Direct: He said, “It is time we left the place.

    Indirect: He said that it was time they left the place.
Indirect speech এ “had better” 1st person এবং third person এর সহিত অপরিবর্তিত থাকে। কিন্তু second person-এর সহিত had better    অপরিবর্তিত থাকতে পারে অথবা নিম্নলিখিত উপায়ে পরিবর্তিত হতে পারে।

     Direct: He said to me,”You had better go”.
Indirect: He said to me that i had better go.

    might, ought to, should, would, used to, indirect speech এ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।

     Direct: I said to him,”You might go”.
Indirect: I said to him that he might go.

    If i were you, I should/would… ” দ্বারা উপদেশ বুঝালে indirect করার সময় subject+advise+object+to+reported speech এর verb বসে।

     Direct: I said to him,” If i were you, i should wait”.
Indirect: I advised him to want.

    According to Person:
Reported speech-এর অন্তরগত First Person সর্বদা Reporting verb- এর Subject- এর person অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।

     Direct: He said to me,” I had done my duty”.
Indirect: He said to me that he had done his duty.

    Reported Speech -এর অন্তরগত Second person সর্বদা Reporting verb -এর object- এর  person অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।

     Direct: He said to me, “you have done your duty”.
Indirect: He said to me that I have done my duty.

     Reported Speech -এর অন্তরগত Third Person এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

     Direct: I said to you, “ He has done his duty”.
Indirect: I said to you that he had done his duty.

We দ্বারা মানবজাতি বুঝালে first person হওয়া সত্তে ও indirect speech এ তার পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Direct: The teacher said, “ We are mortal,”

    Indirect: The teacher said that we are mortal.

   b) We যদি বক্তা(speaker) ও যাকে উদ্দেশ্য করে (person spoken to) উভয়কে বুঝায় তবে Indirect Speech -এ তার কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

     Direct: He said to me, “We should do our duty.”
Indirect: He said to me that we should do our duty.

    Some Extra Tips:
must সাধারনতঃ “had to” তে রুপান্তরিত হয়।
Direct: Nafisa said, “ I must write a letter”.
Indirect: Nafisa said that she had to write a letter.

    b) First person must এ must কোন ভবিষ্যৎ কাজের দ্বারা ব্যাধবাধকতা বুঝাতে Indirect speech-এ would have to তে রুপান্তিত হয়।

Direct: He said, “We must leave the house if the rent is increased.”
Indirect: He said that they would have to leave the house if the rent was increased.

    c) কিন্তু চিরকালিন বাধবাধকতা বুঝালে must-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Direct: Father said to his son, “ You must obey your teachers”.
Indirect: Father said to his son that he must obey his teachers.

    d) Reported speech কোন Universal truth(চিরন্তন সত্য) or habitual fact(অভ্যাসগত কর্ম) প্রকাশ করলে verb-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Direct: He said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
Indirect: He said that the earth moves round the sun.

    e) Reporting verb হিসেবে “say” বা “tell”-এর ব্যবহার।
Reported verb হিসেবে “say” Direct এবং Indirect উভয় Speech-এই ব্যবহৃত হয়। তবে indirect speech এ say ব্যবহার না করাই ভাল। Reporting verb হিসেবে tell সাধারনত direct narration এ ব্যবহৃত হয় না। Tell এর পর অবশ্যই একটি indirect (ব্যক্তিবাচক) object বসাতে হবে। say এর পর যদি object বসাতে হয় তবে object এর পূর্বে to বসে। tell এর পর to বসে না।

    Direct: Roky said to Jak, “ I like to read novels.”
Indirect: Roky told Jak that he liked to read novels.

    f) নৈকট্য সূচক শব্দগুলো Indirect speech এ পরিবর্তিত হয়ে দূরত্ব সূচক শব্দে পরিনত হয়। যেমনঃ

   Direct =Indirect This=That
Today=That day
Yesterday=The previous day
Ago= before
Last month= The previous month
To night=That night
Last night= The previous night
Next week=The following week
Now= Then

g) Direct Speech এ “Thank you” থাকলে তাকে Indirect করার নিয়মঃ
Structure: sub + thank/thanked + reporting verb এর obj

      Direct: He said to me, “Thank you”
Indirect: He thanked me.

    h) “Good bye” যুক্ত Direct speech কে Indirect করার নিয়মঃ
Structure: Sub + bid/bade + obj + goodbye

    Direct: He said, “Good bye my friends”.
Indirect: He bade his friend’s good bye.

  i) Direct Speechএ Good morning/Good evening/Good night থাকলে indirect করার নিয়মঃ
Structure: sub+ wish/wised + obj + good morning/evening/night

    Direct: I said to him, “Good morning.”
Indirect: I wished him good morning.

  j) Reporting verb ও তার subject এবং object উল্লেক না থাকলে The speaker said to the person spoken to লিখে Indirect Speech-এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Direct: “I shall meet you tomorrow”.
Indirect: The speaker said to the person spoken to that he would meet him the next day.

        According to Sentence:

   Assertive sentence:

     Assertive sentence কে indirect speech-এ রুপান্তরের সময় Reporting verb say/said, or tell/told (object যদি থাকে) বসে । Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে conjunction “that” বসে । Reported Speech এর subject + verb + Extension.

  Direct: The teacher said to me, “You are wrong”.
Indirect: The teacher said to me that i was wrong.
Direct: Ruma said, “My father would go home tomorrow”.
Indirect: Ruma said that her father would go home tomorrow.

    b) Interrogative Sentence:

   Reporting verb টি ‘ask’ ‘enquire of’ ‘want to know’ ‘demand’ ‘wonder’ ইত্যাদিতে পরিবর্তিত হয়। Reported Speech যদি Auxiliary verb (do, does, did, shall, will, am, is, are, was, were, can, may ইত্যাদি) দ্বারা আরম্ভ হয় আর্থাৎ সংক্ষেপে “yes” বা “no” দ্বারা উত্তর দেওয়া যায় তবে  Reported speech এর পূর্বে that না বসিয়া  if/whether বসাতে হয়। Sentence টি Interrogative এর পরিবর্তে Assertive sentence -এ রুপান্তিত হয়।

     Direct: He said to me, “Are you reading my book?”
Indirect: He asked me if i was reading his book.

    Reported Speech যদি Interrogative pronoun (who, whom, whose, what, which ইত্যাদি) বা Interrogative adverb (why, where, how, when ইত্যাদি) দ্বারা আরম্ভ হয় তবে if/whether বসে না, ঐ শব্দটিই বসে। Sentence টি Interrogative এর পরিবর্তে Assertive sentence -এ রুপান্তিত হয়।

Direct: He said to his father, “What are you doing?”    Indirect: He asked his father what he was doing.

    c) Imperative Sentence:
এক্ষেএে Reporting verb -টি অনুরোধ বুঝালে request, আদেশ বুঝালে order/command, উপদেশ বুঝালে advise অন্যথায় tell দ্বারা পরিবর্তিত হয় + Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে to বসে + Reported speech-এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

Direct: He said to me, “ Please give me a glass of water.”

    Indirect: He requested me to give him a glass of water.
Imperative Sentence-টি যদি negative হয় তবে reporting verb এর পরে not বসে এবং তার পর to বসে।
Direct: He said to me, “ don’t do this.”
Idirect: He told to me not to do that.

    Imperative sentence-এ direct speech-এ কাউকে সম্বোধন করা হলে নিচের নিয়ম এর সাহায্যে indirect speech-এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।
Structure: Addressing + Reporting verb-এর object(যদি থাকে) + as + যাকে/যাদেরকে সম্বোধন করা হইয়াছে সে শব্দটি + reporting verb-এর subject + reporting verb + to + reported speech এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত।

    Direct: He said to them, “Friends help me.”
Indirect: Addressing them as friends, he requested them to help him.

  Imperative sentence এর direct speech-এ Sir থাকলে indirect করার সময় Sir এর পরিবর্তে respectfully ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Direct: The boy said to the teacher, “ Sir, lend me your book please.”
Indirect: The boy requested the teacher respectfully to lend him(b) his(t) book.

    Let এর পরে us থাকলে indirect করার সময় reporting verb-টি পরিবর্তে হয়ে propose/suggest হয় + inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে that বসে + they/we + should বসে + reported speech এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

Note: Reporting verb এর Subject third person হলে that এর পর we বসে এবং reporting verb এর subject first person হলে that এর পরে they বসে।

    Direct: We said to the chairman, “Let us drop the matter.”
Indirect: We proposed the chairman dropping the matter.
Direct: I said to him, “Let us play.”
Indirect: I suggest playing.

    Exceptional: Let দ্বারা প্রস্তাব না বুঝালে reporting verb টি পরিবর্তন হয় না inverted comma উঠে that বসে+ reported verb এর subject পুনরায় বসে + might + reporting speech-এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

    Direct: Kamal said to me, “Let him say whatever he likes.”
Indirect: Kamal told me that he might say whatever he liked.

        Optative Sentence:

     Reporting verb-এর পরিবর্তে wish or pray বসে + Inverted comma উঠে গিয়ে that বসে + Reported speech -এর subject বসে + may/might + Reported speech -এর মূল verb থেকে শেষ পর্যন্ত বসে।

  Direct: Father said to me, “May you pass the examination.”
Indirect: Father prayed that i might pass the examination.
Direct: The teacher said to the student, “May Allah blesses you.”
Indirect: The teacher wished that Allah might bless the student.

    Exclamatory Sentence:

   Direct Speech দ্বারা আনন্দ বুঝালে Reporting verb পরিবর্তিত হয়ে exlaim/exlaimed with joy আর দুঃখ বুঝালে exclaim/exclaimed with sorrow or grief ইত্যাদি হয় + Inverted comma উঠে that বসে + reported speech আর subject + reporting verb অনুযায়ী reported peech আর verb বসে + very/great + adjective বসে + বাকি অংশ।

     Direct: The man said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect: The man exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.

    Reported Speech how বা what দ্বারা শুরু হলে অর্থাৎ Sentence এর শুরুতে আতিশয্য বুঝালে Indirect Narration করার সময় উক্ত How/What এর পরিবর্তে very, much, great ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Direct: Silva said, “What a fine bird it is.”
Indirect: Silva exclaimed with joy that it was a very fine bird.


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